5'-Fluorescein phosphoramidite contains no 4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group and can be added only once at the 5'-terminus, thereby terminating synthesis. This product is prepared using the 6-carboxyfluorescein derivative. The tetrachloro (TET)-, hexachloro (HEX) - and dichloro-dimethoxy (JOE)- fluorescein phosphoramidites are designed to take advantage of the multicolor detection capability of modern DNA sequencers and genetic analyzers. Fluorescein phosphoramidite is designed to produce the same fluorescein-type structure as had been previously prepared using fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC). Our fluorescein phosphoramidite also contains a DMT group to allow quantification of coupling. The analogous structure, 6-Fluorescein Phosphoramidite, prepared using 6-FAM, is also available, along with 6-Fluorescein Serinol Phosphoramidite. Fluorescein-dT can be inserted into the desired sequence as a replacement for a dT residue.
We offer five fluorescein supports. Fluorescein CPG has traditionally been used to add the fluorescein label at the 3'-terminus. The analogous structure, 3'-(6-Fluorescein) CPG, prepared using 6-FAM, is now also available, along with 6-Fluorescein Serinol CPG. We also offer 3'-(6-FAM) CPG and Fluorescein-dT CPG, both derivatives of 6-carboxyfluorescein (6-FAM). Both are single isomers and use an amide linkage which is stable during cleavage and deprotection and does not allow isomer formation. 3'-(6-FAM) CPG allows effective blockage of the 3'-terminus from polymerase extension as well as exonuclease digestion. Fluorescein-dT CPG allows both of these enzymatic activities to proceed. Normal cleavage and deprotection with ammonium hydroxide readily generates the fluorescein labelled oligos.
The spectral characteristics of these dyes are detailed on the following page.
Coupling: 12-15 minute coupling time.
Deprotection: No changes needed from standard method recommended by synthesizer manufacturer.
Response: While AMA (Ammonium hydroxide/40% Methylamine 1:1 v/v) is considered compatible with fluorescein, the use of methylamine when deprotecting a Fluorescein-labeled oligo does lead to a small amount of degradation, which is characterized by a the appearance of a late-eluting peak by RP HPLC that shows no visible fluorescein absorbance. With standard deprotection conditions (AMA 10 minutes at 65 C) the amount of degradation is approximately 5%|||
Modification reagents based on a 1,2-diol, e.g., BioTEG, DNP phosphoramidites, or a 1,3-diol, e.g., fluorescein, biotin phosphoramidites, can be added several times at the 5'-terminus since they contain an alcohol group capable of further addition with phosphoramidites. Can this alcohol also be a substrate for T4 polynucleotide kinase for 32P labelling of these modified oligonucleotides? Surprisingly, the answer is yes. Teoule and coworkers have shown(1) that oligos labelled at the 5'-terminus are substrates for kinase. Interestingly, the oligos modified with reagents based on 1,2-diols are labelled to 50%, indicating that only one diastereomer is labelled, while those modified with 1,3-diol reagents are labelled to 100%.||REFERENCE(S): (1) M.L. Fontanel, H. Bazin, and R. Teoule, Analytical Biochemistry, 1993, 214, 338-340. ||